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It is a nation located in the north of the South American region, sharing borders to the west and southwest with Colombia, to the southeast with Brazil and to the east with Guyana. It also has maritime borders with the islands of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (dependents of Holland ) On the facade of the Caribbean Sea and on the Atlantic with Trinidad and Tobago. In addition it has under its dependence many islands scattered in the Caribbean Sea, being greater the Island of Margarita; very away from the mainland there is the Island of Aves, of great strategic importance as it increases the continental shelf of the country.

During the pre-Columbian era, its territory was home to important tribal groups of Amerindians such as the Caribs, Venezuelan aborigines occupied the mountainous region, the plains and Guayana. After being sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1498, a process of colonization began shortly afterwards and then a process of cultural mestizaje.

Venezuela was the first country in Latin America to proclaim its independence from the Spanish Crown, a process that was consolidated with the Battle of Carabobo. After a long chapter of civil conflicts, the Republic found its way towards the modernization of the hand of notoriously authoritarian governments.

In the middle of the 20th century, the struggle for a democratic system began, which was consolidated after the overthrow of General Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958. Due to the oil boom, Venezuela experienced a period of high economic growth, which was interrupted by the crisis Energy crisis of the 1980s, provoking a period of political and social instability alternated with financial ups and downs until in 1999, when a former member of the Armed Forces of that country, called Hugo Chavez, reached the presidency beginning a process of changes and socio-political reforms and economic policies whose main examples are the Constituent Assembly of 1999 and the transition to the so-called "Socialism of the 21st Century" started in 2005, whic many recognize as the Bolivarian Revolution.

Venezuela is a tropical country, which has common geographical features with other nations of the American continent, as well as Africa, Asia and Oceania, which are located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, both in the Northern Hemisphere and in the South. Its location favors that the continental and insular territory presents varied tropical climates, with great natural potential of renewable solar energy, expressed in exuberant and varied vegetation in hot and humid environments.

It presents a great physiographic diversity, originated by the occurrence of 27 climatic zones, 12 types of natural vegetation, 23 types of relief and 38 large geological units, with a soil cover that has a wide variety of characteristics and qualities.

With a height of 979 m above sea level, the Angel Falls are the highest waterfall in the world and one of the most recognized and revered symbols of Venezuela.

The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is located in the north of Ecuador, on the north coast of South America. The continental territory is between 0 ° 38 '53'' and 12 ° 11'46'' north latitude and 59 ° 47'30'' and 73 ° 23' west longitude. It limits to the North, with the Caribbean Sea or Sea of the Antilles, with an extension of 2,813 kms; To the south, with the Federative Republic of Brazil with 2,000 km of border; To the east, with the Atlantic Ocean and the Republic of Guyana with which it has a frontier line of 743 kms; And to the west, with the Republic of Colombia in an extension of 2,050 km.

Its continental shelf is located to the north and northeast of the country, covering approximately 18% of the total continental area with a maritime presence of 860,000 km2. In general, it comprises a wide coastal strip of low relief, between 0 and 100 meters above sea level. It is located between the Caribbean Sea and the Cordillera de la Costa. It presents three widened depressions of importance: the Lake of Maracaibo (to the west), the Deare de Unare (towards the central end northeast) and the region of the Orinoco Delta (to the east) of low lands and muddies. In the coastal zone are the most important ports of the country: La Guaira, Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello and Puerto la Cruz.

These extensive territories are expressed in a compact continental area, whose maximum distance is 1,993 km, in an East-West direction and 1,271 km, in a North-South direction, which contributes to facilitate the integration and internal cohesion. It is articulated with wide coastlines, which reach in the Caribbean Sea a sea front of 2,183 km in length, from Castilletes to the Promontory of Paria; Is of irregular form and is constituted by numerous gulfs and bays between which they emphasize Triste and Cariaco gulfs and more than 314 islands, keys and islets of Venezuelan sovereignty that arrive by the North to the Island of Birds.

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